# Class 10 Physics Chapter 1

Updated: 17 Dec 2023

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Class 10 Physics Chapter 1 introduces the concept of “Simple Harmonic Motion and Waves”. This is mainly chapter No. 10, “Simple Harmonic Motion and Waves”, of the book of Class 10.
This article consists of Notes, SLO Based Notes and MCQs of Physics, which cover your course, board papers and clear your Physics concept for different types of tests.

## Class 10 Physics Chapter 1 Notes

### Simple Harmonic Motion and Waves

Class 10 Physics Chapter No. 10 Notes

### SLO Base Notes

Class 10 Physics Chapter 10 SLO Base Notes

## Class 10 Physics Chapter 1 MCQs

1. A repetitive back-and-forth motion about an equilibrium position is called:
(a) Oscillation
(b) Translation
(c) Rotation
(d) Acceleration

Oscillation

2. Oscillation is also known as:
(a) Linear motion
(b) Rotational motion
(c) Oscillatory motion
(d) Angular motion

Oscillatory motion

3. One complete round trip of the vibrating body about the mean position is called:
(a) Vibration
(b) Time period
(c) Oscillation
(d) Amplitude

Vibration

4. The other term used for vibration is:
(a) Cycle
(b) Rotation
(c) Acceleration
(d) Linear motion

Cycle

5. In oscillation, what is the mean position?
(a) The highest point of the motion
(b) The final destination of the object
(c) The midpoint or equilibrium position
(d) The starting point of the motion

The midpoint or equilibrium position

6. In oscillation, what is the extreme position?
(a) The midpoint
(b) The mean position
(c) The equilibrium position
(d) The farthest point from the mean position

The farthest point from the mean position

7. The time required to complete one cycle is said to be:
(a) Frequency
(b) Displacement
(c) Time period
(d) Amplitude

Time period

8. What is the SI unit of time (T) in oscillatory motion?
(a) Cycles per second (s^{-1})
(b) Hertz (Hz)
(c) Meters (m)
(d) Seconds (s)

Seconds (s)

9. The number of cycles per unit time is:
(a) Frequency
(b) Amplitude
(c) Displacement
(d) Time period

Frequency

10. What symbol is commonly used to represent frequency?
(a) T
(b) F
(c) V
(d) f

f

11. What is the unit of frequency?
(a) Hertz (Hz)
(b) Meters per second (m/s)
(c) Newton (N)
(d) Seconds (s)

Hertz (Hz)

12. What is the mathematical relationship between time period (T) and frequency (f) in oscillatory motion?
(a) T = f
(b) T = \frac{1}{f}
(c) T = f^2
(d) T = 2f

T = \frac{1}{f}

13. If an object completes 20 cycles in 5 seconds, what is its frequency?
(a) 4 Hz
(b) 20 Hz
(c) 5 Hz
(d) 25 Hz

4 Hz

14. If an object completes 10 cycles in 10 seconds, what is its frequency?
(a) 1 Hz
(b) 2 Hz
(c) 3 Hz
(d) 4 Hz

1 Hz

15. If the frequency of an oscillation is 100 Hz, what is the time period of the motion?
(a) 10 seconds
(b) 0.01 seconds
(c) 100 seconds
(d) 1000 seconds

0.01 seconds

16. If the frequency of an oscillation is 50 Hz, what is the time period of the motion?
(a) 2 seconds
(b) 0.02 seconds
(c) 200 seconds
(d) 2000 seconds

0.02 seconds

17. The distance of the oscillating body from the mean position at any instant of time is called:
(a) Frequency
(b) Time period
(c) Displacement
(d) Amplitude

Displacement

18. What is the SI unit of displacement (x) in oscillatory motion?
(a) Cycles per second (s^{-1})
(b) Meters (m)
(c) Hertz (Hz)
(d) Seconds (s)

Meters (m)

19. The maximum displacement of the body from its mean position in one cycle is called:
(a) Amplitude
(b) Frequency
(c) Displacement
(d) Time period

Amplitude

20. What is the unit of amplitude in oscillatory motion?
(a) Hertz (Hz)
(b) Meters (m)
(c) Cycles per second (s^{-1})
(d) No unit

Meters (m)

21. How is amplitude denoted in mathematical representations of oscillation?
(a) S
(b) D
(c) x
(d) x_o

x_o

22. SHM is an abbreviation for:
(a) Simple Harmonic Motion
(b) Synchronized Harmonic Movement
(c) Systematic Harmonic Motion
(d) Structured Harmonic Maneuver

Simple Harmonic Motion

23. A special kind of vibratory motion with a restoring force proportional to displacement is called:
(a) Translational Motion
(b) Periodic Oscillation
(c) Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)
(d) Vibrational Motion

Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)

24. Simple Harmonic Motion involves motion that is:
(a) Random and unpredictable
(b) Circular and rotational
(c) Linear and one-dimensional
(d) Back and forth along the same path

Back and forth along the same path

25. In SHM, a point where the net force acting on the body is zero.
(a) Equilibrium point
(b) Displacement point
(c) Maximum point
(d) Inertia point

Equilibrium point

26. When an object is displaced from its equilibrium position in SHM, which direction does the restoring force act?
(a) In the direction of displacement
(b) Opposite to the displacement
(c) Perpendicular to the displacement
(d) None of these

Opposite to the displacement

27. In Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM), what is the relationship between acceleration (a) and displacement (x) ?
(a) a \propto -x
(b) a \propto \frac{1}{x}
(c) a = x^2
(d) a = constant

a \propto -x

28. In Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM), what is the relationship between restoring force (F) and displacement (x) ?
(a) F \propto -x
(b) F \propto 1/x
(c) F = x^2
(d) F = constant

F \propto -x

29. Which equation represents the condition for Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM)?
(a) F = -kx
(b) a = -kx
(c) Both a and b
(d) None of these

Both a and b

30. What does the elastic restoring force in a spring depend on, according to Hook’s Law?
(a) Mass of the block
(b) Displacement from equilibrium position
(c) Spring constant (k)
(d) Acceleration of the block

Displacement from equilibrium position

31. Which equation represents Hook’s Law for a spring?
(a) F = ma
(b) F_{res} = -kx
(c) F_{res} = k – x
(d) F = kx

F_{res} = -kx

32. What type of motion is exhibited by a mass attached to a spring when the restoring force follows Hook’s Law?
(a) Uniform motion
(b) Simple harmonic motion (SHM)
(c) Circular motion
(d) Random motion

Simple harmonic motion (SHM)

33. What does “k” represent in the equation F_{res} = -kx ?
(a) Mass of the block
(b) Acceleration of the block
(c) Spring constant
(d) Equilibrium position

Spring constant

34. What is the condition for the oscillatory motion of a mass attached to a spring to be simple harmonic?
(a) The mass must be very small
(b) The restoring force must follow Hook’s Law
(c) The displacement must be large
(d) The spring constant must be zero

The restoring force must follow Hook’s Law

35. What property of the spring remains constant during the oscillation of the mass attached to it?
(a) Displacement
(b) Mass
(c) Spring constant (k)
(d) Acceleration

Spring constant (k)

36. Determine the restoring force of a spring displaced 5 meters with a spring constant of 30 \ N/m .
(a) 150 \ N
(b) -150 \ N
(c) 30 \ N
(d) -30 \ N

-150 \ N

37. When a force of 10 Newton is applied to a spring, it stretches by 0.2 meters. What is the spring constant (k) of the spring?
(a) 2 \ N/m
(b) 5 \ N/m
(c) 20 \ N/m
(d) 50 \ N/m

50 \ N/m

38. What is the formula for the time period (T) of a mass-spring system in simple harmonic motion (SHM)?
(a) T = \frac{2x}{m}

(b) T = \frac{2m}{k}

(c) T = \frac{2k}{m}

(d) T = 2 \pi \sqrt{ \frac{m}{k}}

T = 2 \pi \sqrt{ \frac{m}{k}}

39. What does the time period (T) of a mass-spring system in SHM depend on?
(a) Mass (m) and displacement (x)
(b) Spring constant (k) and displacement (x)
(c) Mass (m) and spring constant (k)
(d) Amplitude of oscillation

Mass (m) and spring constant (k)

40. What is the formula for the frequency (f) of a mass-spring system in simple harmonic motion (SHM)?
(a) f = 2 \pi \sqrt{ \frac{m}{k}}

(b) f = \frac{2m}{k}

(c) f = \frac{2k}{m}

(d) f = \frac{1}{2 \pi} \times \sqrt{ \frac{k}{m}}

f = \frac{1}{2 \pi} \times \sqrt{ \frac{k}{m}}

41. The frequency (f) of a mass-spring system in SHM doesn’t depend on?
(a) Mass (m)
(b) Spring constant (k)
(c) Displacement (x)
(d) None of these

Displacement (x)

42. A pendulum having a small bob size, light string, and straight cord is said to be:
(a) Simple Pendulum
(b) Complex Pendulum
(c) Oscillator
(d) None of these

Simple Pendulum

43. In a simple pendulum, what provides the restoring force for its oscillations?
(a) Tension in the string
(b) Air drag
(c) Friction at the pivot
(d) Gravity

Gravity

44. When can the motion of a simple pendulum be approximated as simple harmonic motion (SHM)?
(a) When the angle is large
(b) When the bob size is large
(c) When the angle is small
(d) When the cord stretches

When the angle is small

45. Which component of force provides the restoring force in a simple pendulum?
(a) -mg \sin \theta
(b) mg \cos \theta
(c) Tension (T)
(d) Air resistance

-mg \sin \theta

46. What is the formula for the time period (T) of a simple pendulum in simple harmonic motion (SHM)?
(a) T = \frac{2x}{m}

(b) T = \frac{2m}{g}

(c) T = 2 \pi \sqrt{ \frac{L}{g}}

(d) T = 2 \pi \sqrt{ \frac{g}{L}}

T = 2 \pi \sqrt{ \frac{L}{g}}

47. What does the time period (T) of a simple pendulum in SHM depend on?
(a) Mass (m) and displacement (x)
(b) Length of the pendulum (L) and displacement (x)
(c) Amplitude of oscillation
(d) Length (L) and acceleration due to gravity (g)

Length (L) and acceleration due to gravity (g)

48. What is the formula for the frequency (f) of a simple pendulum in simple harmonic motion (SHM)?
(a) f = \frac{1}{2 \pi} \times \sqrt{ \frac{g}{L}}

(b) f = \frac{2m}{g}

(c) f = 2 \pi \sqrt{ \frac{L}{g}}

(d) f = 2 \pi \sqrt{ \frac{g}{L}}

f = \frac{1}{2 \pi} \times \sqrt{ \frac{g}{L}}

49. The frequency (f) of a simple pendulum in SHM doesn’t depend on?
(a) Mass (m)
(b) Length of the pendulum (L)
(c) Acceleration due to gravity (g)
(d) None of these

Mass (m)

50. The time period of second pendulum is:
(a) 2 seconds
(b) 1 second
(c) 0.5 seconds
(d) 4 seconds

2 seconds

51. A force that reduces the amplitude of vibrations is called:
(a) Restoring Force
(b) Damping Force
(c) Centripetal Force
(d) Centrifugal Force

Damping Force

52. The motion of a pendulum eventually stops in real systems due to:
(a) Drag force
(b) Energy loss
(c) Air resistance
(d) Damping

Air resistance

53. What effect does damping have on the amplitude of vibrations over time?
(a) It increases the amplitude
(b) It keeps the amplitude constant
(c) It reduces the amplitude
(d) It doesn’t affect the amplitude

It reduces the amplitude

54. What happens to the energy of a damped system as time progresses?
(a) It increases
(b) It decreases
(c) It remains constant
(d) It fluctuates randomly

It decreases

55. A disturbance that travels through space or a medium, transferring energy from one place to another without a net movement of matter is called:
(a) Oscillation
(b) Vibration
(c) Wave
(d) Particle motion

Wave

56. What type of motion do particles in a medium exhibit when a wave passes through them?
(a) Linear motion
(b) Simple harmonic motion
(c) Circular motion
(d) Rotational motion

Simple harmonic motion

57. The waves produced by the oscillation of material particles within a medium are called:
(a) Electromagnetic waves
(b) Seismic waves
(c) Mechanical waves
(d) Gravitational waves

Mechanical waves

58. The waves that require a material medium for their propagation are known as:
(a) Electromagnetic waves
(b) Mechanical waves
(c) Transverse waves
(d) All of these

Mechanical waves

59. Sound waves are:
(a) Electromagnetic waves
(b) Transverse waves
(c) Mechanical waves
(d) All of these

Mechanical waves

60. The wave that propagates through the oscillation of electric and magnetic fields is called:
(a) Mechanical wave
(b) Electromagnetic wave
(c) Transverse wave
(d) Longitudinal wave

Electromagnetic wave

61. Which type of waves are electromagnetic waves?
(a) Mechanical waves
(b) Longitudinal waves
(c) Transverse waves
(d) All of these

Transverse waves

62. The waves that do not require a material medium for their propagation are known as:
(a) Electromagnetic waves
(b) Mechanical waves
(c) Transverse waves
(d) All of these

Electromagnetic waves

63. Which of the following is NOT an example of electromagnetic waves?
(a) Visible light
(c) Sound waves
(d) X-rays

Sound waves

64. Which electromagnetic waves have shorter wavelengths, visible light or radio waves?
(a) Visible light
(c) They have the same wavelength
(d) It depends on the frequency

Visible light

65. The disturbance occurs perpendicular to the direction of motion is called:
(a) Transverse wave
(b) Longitudinal wave
(c) Mechanical wave
(d) Electromagnetic wave

Transverse wave

66. Which of the following is an example of a transverse wave?
(a) Sound wave
(b) Mechanical wave
(c) Longitudinal wave
(d) Water wave

Water wave

67. What are AM and FM radio waves examples of?
(a) Longitudinal waves
(b) Transverse waves
(c) Mechanical waves
(d) Sound waves

Transverse waves

68. What term is used to describe the part of a wave that is above the equilibrium position?
(a) Crest
(b) Trough
(c) Amplitude
(d) Wavelength

Crest

69. What term is used to describe the part of a wave that is below the equilibrium position?
(a) Crest
(b) Trough
(c) Amplitude
(d) Wavelength

Trough

70. The disturbance occurs parallel to the direction of motion is called:
(a) Transverse wave
(b) Longitudinal wave
(c) Mechanical wave
(d) Electromagnetic wave

Longitudinal wave

71. What type of wave are sound waves primarily categorized as?
(a) Transverse waves
(b) Electromagnetic waves
(c) Longitudinal waves
(d) None of these

Longitudinal waves

72. What type of motion is exhibited by particles in a medium when a longitudinal wave passes through?
(a) Linear motion
(b) Circular motion
(c) Oscillatory motion
(d) All of these

Linear motion

73. How a sound wave is typically generated in a longitudinal wave?
(a) By shaking a rope
(b) By vibrating electric fields
(c) By creating magnetic disturbances
(d) By compressing and rarefying air molecules

By compressing and rarefying air molecules

74. What are regions of high density and pressure relative to the equilibrium in a wave called?
(a) Troughs
(b) Compressions
(c) Crests
(d) Rarefactions

Compressions

75. In a longitudinal wave, what are regions of low density and pressure relative to equilibrium called?
(a) Compressions
(b) Troughs
(c) Crests
(d) Rarefactions

Rarefactions

76. The shortest distance between two consecutive crests or troughs in a wave is called:
(a) Amplitude
(b) Frequency
(c) Wavelength
(d) Compression

Wavelength

77. The shortest distance between two consecutive compressions or rarefactions in a wave is called:
(a) Wavelength
(b) Amplitude
(c) Frequency
(d) Crest

Wavelength

78. What is the symbol used to represent wavelength in physics?
(a) \Omega
(b) \lambda
(c) \delta
(d) \sum

\lambda

79. What is the SI unit of wavelength?
(a) Meters (m)
(b) Hertz (Hz)
(c) Joules (J)
(d) Amperes (A)

Meters (m)

80. The distance between consecutive crest and trough in a wave is:
(a) \frac{ \lambda}{2}
(b) 2 \lambda
(c) \lambda
(d) 4 \lambda

\frac{ \lambda}{2}

81. In the electromagnetic spectrum, which type of radiation has the shortest wavelength?
(b) Infrared waves
(c) Ultraviolet waves
(d) X-rays

X-rays

82. What is the term for the cyclic motion that a point undergoes as a wave passes through it?
(a) Wave cycle
(b) Frequency
(c) Time period
(d) Wave speed

Wave cycle

83. The number of wave cycles passing through a point in unit time is called:
(a) Amplitude
(b) Time period
(c) Frequency
(d) Wavelength

Frequency

84. If three cycles pass through a point in one second, what is the frequency?
(a) 1 hertz
(b) 2 hertz
(c) 3 hertz
(d) 4 hertz

3 hertz

85. What is the term used to describe the distance traveled by a wave in unit time?
(a) Frequency
(b) Wavelength
(c) Time period
(d) Wave speed

Wave speed

86. What is the formula for wave speed (v) ?
(a) v = distance \times time
(b) v = time period \times frequency
(c) v = wavelength \times frequency
(d) v = amplitude \times velocity

v = wavelength \times frequency

87. What is the universal wave equation that describes wave propagation in various physical phenomena?
(a) E=mc^2
(b) F=ma
(c) E=hf
(d) v=f \lambda

v=f \lambda

88. A sound wave with a frequency of 440 Hz travels through air. If the speed of sound in air is approximately 343 meters per second, what is the wavelength (\lambda) of this sound wave?
(a) 0.78 m
(b) 1.02 m
(c) 0.55 m
(d) 0.23 m

0.78 m

89. A sound wave travels through air with a wavelength (\lambda) of 0.5 meters. If the speed of sound in air is approximately 340 meters per second, what is the frequency (f) of this sound wave?
(a) 170 Hz
(b) 340 Hz
(c) 680 Hz
(d) 85 Hz

680 Hz

90. A wave with a wavelength (\lambda) of 4 meters and a frequency (f) of 10 Hz is traveling through a medium. What is the speed (v) of this wave?
(a) 2 \ m/s
(b) 40 \ m/s
(c) 0.4 \ m/s
(d) 14 \ m/s

40 \ m/s

91. How are ripples on the water surface visualized in a ripple tank?
(a) By using a reflector to project images on a screen
(b) By observing the water’s color change
(c) By feeling the vibrations in the water
(d) By measuring the water’s temperature changes

By using a reflector to project images on a screen

92. What type of waves can be created in a ripple tank using a straight dipper?
(a) Straight waves
(b) Circular waves
(c) Triangular waves
(d) Sinusoidal waves

Straight waves

93. What type of waves can be created in a ripple tank using a spherical dipper?
(a) Straight waves
(b) Circular waves
(c) Triangular waves
(d) Sinusoidal waves

Circular waves

94. What instrument is commonly used to examine two-dimensional wave mechanics, particularly for studying characteristics such as reflection, refraction, and diffraction?
(a) Oscilloscope
(b) Seismograph
(c) Ripple Tank
(d) Microscope

Ripple Tank

95. What is the term used to describe “All the points forming the wave crest” in wave mechanics?
(a) Ray
(b) Trough
(c) Crest
(d) Wave front

Wave front

96. A line perpendicular to the wave front in wave mechanics:
(a) Refraction
(b) Frequency
(c) Amplitude
(d) Ray

Ray

97. When wave fronts are nearly straight and have lost most of their curvature, what are they called?
(a) Circular waves
(b) Spherical waves
(c) Plane waves
(d) Curved waves

Plane waves

98. The change in direction of a wave-front at an interface in wave mechanics is called
(a) Refraction
(b) Reflection
(c) Diffraction
(d) Transmission

Reflection

99. When waves encounter a straight barrier, how are they typically affected?
(a) They continue straight through the barrier
(b) They change direction and move around the barrier
(c) They are reflected back along their original path
(d) They are absorbed by the barrier

They are reflected back along their original path

100. What happens when a wave hits a straight barrier obliquely?
(a) The wave is absorbed by the barrier
(b) The wave-front is reflected at an angle to the barrier
(c) The wave continues in the same direction
(d) The barrier becomes transparent to the wave

The wave-front is reflected at an angle to the barrier

101. The ray approaching the reflecting surface before interaction is called:
(a) Incident ray
(b) Reflective ray
(c) Transmitted ray
(d) Absorbed ray

Incident ray

102. The ray that results from the reflection off a reflecting surface is known as:
(a) Incident ray
(b) Reflective ray
(c) Transmitted ray
(d) Reflected ray

Reflected ray

103. What is the term for the change in speed of a wave when it enters a new medium?
(a) Refraction
(b) Reflection
(c) Diffraction
(d) Dispersion

Refraction

104. In which direction does the wavelength of a water wave change when it enters a medium where it moves more slowly?
(a) It decreases
(b) It increases
(c) It remains the same
(d) None of these

It decreases

105. The speed of a water wave is directly proportional to:
(a) The amplitude of the wave
(b) The wavelength of the wave
(c) The frequency of the wave
(d) All of these

The wavelength of the wave

106. The speed of a water wave is greatest at:
(a) Shallow water
(b) The water’s surface
(c) Deep water
(d) The water’s bottom

Deep water

107. Where the speed of a water wave is slowest:
(a) In deep water
(b) In shallow water
(c) At the surface of the water
(d) In the presence of strong currents

In shallow water

108. The bending of waves around corners of an obstacle is called:
(a) Diffraction
(b) Refraction
(c) Reflection
(d) Dispersion

Diffraction

109. The diffraction when the size of the opening is smaller than or equal to the wavelength is:
(a) Greatest
(b) Weak and barely noticeable
(c) Completely absent
(d) Random and unpredictable

Greatest

110. The diffraction when the size of the opening is larger than the wavelength is:
(a) Greatest
(b) Weak and barely noticeable
(c) Completely absent
(d) Random and unpredictable