 # Physics Notes 10th Class

Updated: 15 Aug 2019

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Preparing for 10th-class physics exams can be challenging, but having access to comprehensive notes can make a big difference. These physics notes cover all the important topics and concepts and are designed to help you understand the subject matter easily and effectively for your exam. Whether you are struggling with Simple Harmonic Motion, Waves, Sound, Geometric Optics, Electrostatics, Current Electricity, Electromagnetism, Electronics or Radioactivity, these notes are a great resource to help you prepare and succeed.

Physics is a fundamental subject that shapes our understanding of the world around us. It helps us understand the laws of nature and how they govern everything from the smallest subatomic particles to the largest galaxies. Physics also has practical applications in engineering, medicine, and technology. By studying physics, you can gain a deeper understanding of the world and develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills that will serve you well in any career you choose. So, if you’re a 10th-class student looking to shape your future, studying physics is a great place to start.

These free notes are according to the syllabus of KPK text book.
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## Physics Class 10 Notes

### Unit # 10 Simple Harmonic and Waves

Simple harmonic motion (SHM) is a type of periodic motion where the restoring force on an object is proportional to its displacement from equilibrium and directed towards that point. This type of motion is found in many physical systems, such as a mass on a spring or a pendulum. Waves, however, are disturbances that propagate through a medium, transferring energy. The types of waves are mechanical, electromagnetic, and sound waves.

The properties of waves include frequency, wavelength, amplitude, and speed. Frequency refers to the number of vibrations/wave cycles in unit time and is measured in Hertz (Hz). Wavelength is the shortest distance between two consecutive points on a wave and is measured in meters (m). Amplitude is the distance between the mean position and extreme position of a vibrating body and is measured in meters (m).

Understanding the principles of simple harmonic motion and waves is essential for success in 10th-class physics exams. #### SLO Physics Class 10 Chapter # 10 SLO Based Class 10 Physics Chapter # 10

### Unit # 11 Sound

Sound waves are longitudinal waves that travel through a medium, such as air or water. It is created by vibrations that cause pressure waves to move through the medium. The characteristics of sound include Pitch, Loudness and Quality through which one sound can be distinguished from another. Sound travels at a certain speed and depends on the medium it travels through. The speed of sound is typically around 343 meters per second in the air at room temperature (20 oC). #### SLO Physics Class 10 Chapter # 11 SLO Based Class 10 Physics Chapter # 11

### Unit # 12 Geometric Optics

Geometric Optics Geometric optics is the study of light as it travels in straight lines and interacts with mirrors and lenses. The behaviour of light can be described using the laws of reflection and refraction. The law of reflection states that the angle of reflection is equal to the angle of incidence. In contrast, the law of refraction states that the refractive index of the medium relates to the angle of refraction and incidence. Mirrors and lenses can be used to manipulate the path of light and create images. Concave mirrors and convex lenses can create real images, while convex mirrors and concave lenses can create virtual images. The Mirror Equation is also an important equation covered in this chapter. #### SLO Physics Class 10 Chapter # 12 SLO Based Class 10 Physics Chapter # 12

### Unit # 13 Electrostatics

In Electrostatics, we study electric charges at rest. Electric charges can be positive or negative like charges repel while opposite charges attract. Coulomb’s law explains the force between two-point charges. Electric charges create electric fields and can be visualized using field lines. #### SLO Physics Class 10 Chapter # 13 SLO Based Class 10 Physics Chapter # 13

### Unit # 14 Current Electricity

Current electricity is the flow of electric charge through a conductor. Ampere (A) is the unit of current, and it is measured using an ammeter. The current flow is caused by a potential difference, or voltage, in a circuit between two points. Volt (V) is the unit of voltage, and it is measured using a voltmeter. Ohm’s law states that the current in a conductor is directly proportional to the applied voltage across it. Ohm (Ω) is the unit of resistance and is measured using an ohmmeter. Resistors are components used to control the current flow in a circuit. #### SLO Physics Class 10 Chapter # 14 SLO Based Class 10 Physics Chapter # 14

### Unit # 15 Electromagnetism

Electromagnetism refers to the relationship between electrically charged particles and magnetism. It is a fundamental concept with many practical applications in our daily lives, such as motors, generators, and transformers. Some key topics in electromagnetism include electric fields, magnetic fields, Fleming’s Left Hand Rule, DC Motors, Electromagnetic induction, Mutual Induction and transformers. Understanding these concepts is essential for success in 10th-class physics exams. #### SLO Physics Class 10 Chapter # 15 SLO Based Class 10 Physics Chapter # 15

### Unit # 16 Introductory Electronics

Electronics is the behaviour and control of electrons (or other charged particles) in circuits. It is a fundamental concept in modern technology and has many practical applications in our daily lives. Understanding these concepts is essential for success in 10th-class physics exams. #### SLO Physics Class 10 Chapter # 16 SLO Based Class 10 Physics Chapter # 16

### Unit # 17 Information and Communication Technology

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is the infrastructure and components that enable modern digital technologies to create, access, process, and communicate information. It includes a wide range of technologies such as computers, smartphones, the internet, and social media. Today’s world is the age of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), which has transformed how we communicate, work, and learn. In physics, ICT plays a crucial role in data analysis, simulation, and modelling. Students studying physics in the 10th Class should have a basic understanding of ICT and its applications in physics. #### SLO Physics Class 10 Chapter # 17 SLO Based Class 10 Physics Chapter # 17

Radioactivity is the spontaneous release of particles or energy from the nucleus of an unstable atom. This process can result in the transformation of one element into another. The three kinds of radiation emitted during radioactive decay have different natures: alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma rays. Alpha particles are, in fact, Helium nuclei (made up of two protons and two neutrons) and are the heaviest and least penetrating type of radiation. Beta particles consist of high-energy electrons emitted from the nucleus and can penetrate deeper into materials than alpha particles.

Gamma rays are electromagnetic (high-energy photons) emitted from the nucleus and can penetrate the most deeply into materials. Radioactivity has many practical applications, including in nuclear power plants, medical imaging, and cancer treatment. #### SLO Physics Class 10 Chapter # 18 SLO Based Class 10 Physics Chapter # 18

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