# Class 10 Physics Chapter 3

Updated: 17 Dec 2023

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Class 10 Physics Chapter 3 introduces the concept of “Geometrical Optics”. This is mainly chapter No. 12, “Geometric Optics”, of the book of Class 10.
This article consists of Notes, SLO Based Notes and MCQs of Physics, which cover your course, board papers and clear your Physics concept for different types of tests.

## Class 10 Physics Chapter 3 Notes

### Geometric Optics

Class 10 Physics Chapter No. 12 Notes

### SLO Base Notes

Class 10 Physics Chapter 12 SLO Base Notes

## Class 10 Physics Chapter 3 MCQs

1. What is the branch of physics that deals with the study of light?
(a) Astrology
(b) Optics
(c) Oscillation
(d) Electromagnetism

Optics

2. What aspect of light does geometrical optics focus on?
(a) Color properties
(b) Tracing geometrical paths
(c) Particle behavior
(d) Quantum effects

Tracing geometrical paths

3. What do we call objects like the Sun, electric lamps, and candles that produce their own light?
(a) Luminous sources
(b) Reflectors
(c) Opaque objects
(d) Translucent objects

Luminous sources

4. What term is used to describe objects that do not produce their own light?
(a) Luminescent objects
(b) Opaque objects
(c) Non-luminous objects

Non-luminous

5. What is the term for the bouncing back of light when it encounters a reflecting surface?
(a) Refraction
(b) Absorption
(c) Diffraction
(d) Reflection

Reflection

6. The approaching ray of light to a reflecting surface is called
(a) The incident ray
(b) The reflected ray
(c) The refracted ray
(d) The normal

The incident ray

7. The ray of light reflected from a reflecting surface is called
(a) The incident ray
(b) The reflected ray
(c) The refracted ray
(d) The normal

The reflected ray

8. The point at which the incident ray strikes the reflecting surface is called
(a) Point of incidence
(b) Point of reflection
(c) Point of refraction
(d) None of these

Point of incidence

9. The line drawn at right angles to the reflecting surface at the point of incidence is called
(a) The incident ray
(b) The reflected ray
(c) The refracted ray
(d) The normal

The normal

10. What is the term for the angle between the incident ray and the normal?
(a) Angle of Reflection
(b) Angle of Incidence
(c) Refracted Angle
(d) Deviated Angle

Angle of Incidence

11. What is the term for the angle between the reflected ray and the normal?
(a) Angle of Reflection
(b) Angle of Incidence
(c) Refracted Angle
(d) Deviated Angle

Angle of Reflection

12. How many laws of reflection are there?
(a) Two
(b) Three
(c) Four
(d) Five

Two

13. Which law states that the incident ray, the reflected ray, and the normal to the surface all lie in the same plane?
(a) First Law
(b) Second Law
(c) Third Law
(d) Law of Refraction

First Law

14. According to the second law, what relationship holds true between the angles of reflection (\theta^{'}) and incidence (\theta) ?
(a) \theta^{'} is greater than \theta
(b) \theta^{'} is less than \theta
(c) \theta^{'} equals \theta
(d) \theta^{'} is unrelated to \theta

\theta^/ equals \theta

15. According to the Second Law of reflection, if the angle of incidence is 30 degrees, what would be the angle of reflection?
(a) 30 degrees
(b) 60 degrees
(c) 90 degrees
(d) 120 degrees

30 degrees

16. What is the term for the ratio of image size to object size?
(a) Attitude
(b) Magnification
(c) Position
(d) Convergence ratio

Magnification

17. When an image is considered larger than the object?
(a) M > 1
(b) M = 1
(c) M < 1
(d) Image attitude upright

M > 1

18. When an image is considered smaller than the object?
(a) M > 1
(b) M = 1
(c) M < 1
(d) Image attitude upright

M < 1

19. When is an image the same size as the object?
(a) M > 1
(b) M = 1
(c) M < 1
(d) Image attitude upright

M = 1

20. What does the attitude of an image indicate?
(a) Image location
(b) Image type
(c) Image orientation
(d) Image magnification

Image orientation

21. When an optical instrument produces an image that is the same orientation as the object, what term best describes this image?
(a) Inverted image
(b) Erect or upright image
(c) Magnified image
(d) Virtual image

Erect or upright image

22. What term is used to describe an optical image that is upside-down compared to the object?
(a) Erect or upright image
(b) Inverted image
(c) Magnified image
(d) Virtual image

Inverted image

23. The _______________ is the distance between the image and the optical device-mirror or lens.
(a) Image Magnification
(b) Image Attitude
(c) Image Location
(d) Image Type

Image Location

24. What does the type of image indicate in optical systems?
(a) Image Magnification
(b) Image Attitude
(c) Image Location
(d) Image Reality

Image Reality

25. How is a real image characterized in terms of light rays?
(a) Light rays appear to diverge
(b) Light rays actually converge at a point
(c) Light rays are parallel
(d) Light rays exhibit refraction

Light rays actually converge at a point

26. What happens when a screen is placed at the position of a real image?
(a) The image appears inverted
(b) The image disappears
(c) The image appears on the screen in focus
(d) The image becomes larger

The image appears on the screen in focus

27. How is a virtual image defined in relation to light rays?
(a) Light rays converge at a point
(b) Light rays appear to diverge
(c) Light rays exhibit interference
(d) Light rays are absorbed

Light rays appear to diverge

28. What occurs when a screen is placed at the position of a virtual image?
(a) The image appears on the screen
(b) The screen remains blank
(c) The image becomes larger
(d) The image appears inverted

The screen remains blank

29. If the polished surface of a spherical mirror faces inward, what type of mirror is it?
(a) Convex mirror
(b) Concave mirror
(c) Planar mirror
(d) Cylindrical mirror

Concave mirror

30. What is another term for a concave mirror based on its reflective properties ?
(a) Diverging mirror
(b) Convex mirror
(c) Converging mirror
(d) Plane mirror

Converging mirror

31. If the polished surface of a spherical mirror faces outward, what type of mirror is it?
(a) Convex mirror
(b) Concave mirror
(c) Planar mirror
(d) Cylindrical mirror

Convex mirror

32. Which type of mirror is commonly referred to as a diverging mirror?
(a) Concave mirror
(b) Convex mirror
(c) Plane mirror
(d) All of these

Convex mirror

33. What is the center of curvature in a spherical mirror?
(a) The midpoint of the mirror
(b) The pole or vertex
(c) The center of the sphere with radius R
(d) The intersection point of light rays

The center of the sphere with radius R

34. What is the term for a straight line through the center of curvature and the midpoint of the mirror?
(a) Curved line
(b) Principal Axis
(c) Reflecting line
(d) Refracting line

Principal Axis

35. At what angle does the principal axis intersect the mirror in a well-constructed mirror?
(a) 45 degrees
(b) 90 degrees
(c) 180 degrees
(d) Variable angles

90 degrees

36. What term is used for the midpoint of the mirror?
(a) Reflecting Point
(b) Center of Curvature
(c) Pole or Vertex

Pole or Vertex

37. What is the point where parallel light rays converge or appear to diverge after reflecting from a concave mirror?
(a) Vertex
(b) Focal Point
(c) Normal

Focal Point

38. What term is used for the distance from the focal point to the pole (or vertex) of a concave mirror?
(b) Focal Length
(c) Normal Length
(d) Convergence Distance

Focal Length

39. What is the relationship between the focal length (f) and the radius of curvature (R) for a concave mirror?
(a) f = R
(b) f = \frac{R}{2}
(c) f = 2R
(d) f = \frac{1}{R}

f = \frac{R}{2}

40. In which unit is the focal length (f) measured?
(a) Diopters
(b) Volts
(c) Meters
(d) Seconds

Meters

41. What happens to the A-ray (parallel ray) after reflection in a concave mirror?
(a) It reflects through the focal point
(b) It becomes parallel to the axis
(c) It reflects back on itself
(d) It passes through the center of curvature

It reflects through the focal point

42. Which of the following is reflected parallel to the principal axis in concave mirror ray tracing?
(a) P-ray
(b) F-ray
(c) C-ray
(d) A-ray

F-ray

43. What happens to the F-ray (focal ray) after reflection in a concave mirror?
(a) It becomes parallel to the axis
(b) It reflects through the focal point
(c) It reflects back on itself
(d) It passes through the center of curvature

It becomes parallel to the axis

44. Which ray passes through the center of curvature of a concave mirror?
(a) F-ray
(b) P-ray
(c) A-ray
(d) C-ray

45. What is the characteristic of the P-ray (pole ray) after reflection in a concave mirror?
(a) It reflects through the focal point
(b) It becomes parallel to the axis
(c) It reflects back on itself
(d) It reflects at an equal angle to the axis

It reflects at an equal angle to the axis

46. Where does the C-ray (central ray) pass after reflection in a concave mirror?
(a) Through the focal point
(b) Parallel to the axis
(c) Through the center of curvature
(d) None of these

Through the center of curvature

47. In concave mirror ray tracing, what does a real image indicate?
(a) The image is formed in front of the mirror
(b) The image is formed behind the mirror
(c) The image is virtual
(d) The image is magnified

The image is formed in front of the mirror

48. In concave mirror ray tracing, what does a virtual image indicate?
(a) The image is formed in front of the mirror
(b) The image is formed behind the mirror
(c) The image is virtual
(d) The image is magnified

The image is formed behind the mirror

49. What does the mirror formula mathematically represent?
(a) \frac{1}{f} = \frac{1}{d_o}+\frac{1}{d_i}
(b) m = \frac{h_i}{h_o}
(c) d_o + d_i = f
(d) f = \frac{d_i}{d_o} + d_i

\frac{1}{f} = \frac{1}{d_o}+\frac{1}{d_i}

50. Which quantities are included in the mirror formula?
(a) Focal length
(b) Object distance
(c) Image distance
(d) All of these

All of these

51. In the mirror formula \frac{1}{f} = \frac{1}{d_o}+\frac{1}{d_i} , what does f represent?
(a) Object distance
(b) Focal length
(c) Image distance
(d) Magnification

Focal length

52. If the image distance is positive in the mirror formula, what type of image is formed?
(a) Real and inverted
(b) Real and upright
(c) Virtual and inverted
(d) Virtual and upright

Real and inverted

53. Which quantity is expressed by do in the mirror formula?
(a) Focal length
(b) Object distance
(c) Image distance
(d) Magnification

Object distance

54. What is the mathematical expression for magnification (m) in terms of heights of the object (h_o) and image (h_i) ?
(a) m = \frac{h_i}{h_o}
(b) m = \frac{h_o}{h_i}
(c) m = h_i + h_o
(d) m = h_i - h_o

m = \frac{h_i}{h_o}

55. What is the mathematical expression for magnification (m) in terms of distance of the object (d_o) and image (d_i) ?
(a) m = \frac{d_i}{d_o}
(b) m = \frac{d_o}{d_i}
(c) m = d_i + d_o
(d) m = d_i - d_o

m = \frac{d_i}{d_o}

56. In the mirror formula, if f is positive, what type of mirror is being considered?
(a) Concave mirror
(b) Convex mirror
(c) Plane mirror
(d) Spherical mirror

Concave mirror

57. If di is negative in the mirror formula, what does it signify about the image position?
(a) Image is real
(b) Image is virtual
(c) Image is inverted
(d) Image is upright

Image is virtual

58. If the magnification (m) is negative in the mirror formula, what does it indicate about the image?
(a) Enlarged image
(b) Reduced image
(c) Real image
(d) Inverted image

Inverted image

59. What information can be obtained by using the mirror formula?
(a) Color of the image
(b) Shape of the mirror
(c) Type of reflection
(d) Position and nature of the image

Position and nature of the image

60. For which type of mirrors is the focal length (f) considered positive?
(a) Concave mirrors
(b) Convex mirrors
(c) Both concave and convex mirrors
(d) Neither concave nor convex mirrors

Concave mirrors

61. For which type of mirrors is the focal length (f) considered negative?
(a) Concave mirrors
(b) Convex mirrors
(c) Both concave and convex mirrors
(d) Neither concave nor convex mirrors

Convex mirrors

62. In a plane mirror, what is the relationship between the object distance (d_o) and the image distance (d_i) ?
(a) d_i > d_o
(b) d_i = d_o
(c) d_i < d_o
(d) Not \ specified

d_i = d_o

63. If the object is placed behind the center of curvature in a concave mirror, what will be the position of the image?
(a) r > d_i > f
(b) d_i > r
(c) d_i = f
(d) d_i = \infty

r > d_i> f

64. If the object is placed at the center of curvature in a concave mirror, what will be the position of the image?
(a) r > d_i > f
(b) d_i = r
(c) d_i = f
(d) d_i = \infty

d_i = r

65. If the object is placed in between the center of curvature and focal point in a concave mirror, what will be the position of the image?
(a) r > d_i > f
(b) d_i > r
(c) d_i = f
(d) d_i = \infty

d_i > r

66. If the object is placed at the focal point in a concave mirror, what will be the position of the image?
(a) r > d_i > f
(b) d_i > r
(c) d_i = f
(d) d_i = \infty

d_i = \infty

67. If the object is placed in between the focal point and pole in a concave mirror, what will be the position of the image?
(a) r > d_i > f
(b) d_i > d_o \ (negative)
(c) d_i = f
(d) d_i = \infty

d_i > d_o \ (negative)

68. If the object is placed in front of convex mirror, what will be the position of the image?
(a) f > d_i > 0 \ (negative)
(b) d_i > d_o \ (negative)
(c) d_i = f
(d) d_i = \infty

f > d_i > 0 \ (negative)

69. What is the characteristic of an image formed by a concave mirror, when the object is placed behind the center of curvature?
(a) Same size
(b) Reduced, inverted
(c) Enlarged, inverted
(d) No image

Reduced, inverted

70. What is the characteristic of an image formed by a concave mirror, when the object is placed at the center of curvature?
(a) Same size
(b) Reduced, inverted
(c) Enlarged, inverted
(d) No image

Same size

71. What is the characteristic of an image formed by a concave mirror, when the object is placed in between the center of curvature and focal point?
(a) Same size
(b) Reduced, inverted
(c) Enlarged, inverted
(d) No image

Enlarged, inverted

72. What is the characteristic of an image formed by a concave mirror, when the object is placed at the focal point?
(a) Same size
(b) Reduced, inverted
(c) Enlarged, inverted
(d) No image

No image

73. What is the characteristic of an image formed by a concave mirror, when the object is placed in between the focal point and pole?
(a) Same size
(b) Reduced, inverted
(c) Enlarged, upright
(d) No image

Enlarged, upright

74. What is the characteristic of an image formed by a convex mirror?
(a) Same size
(b) Reduced, upright
(c) Enlarged, inverted
(d) No image

Reduced, upright

75. At what position in a concave mirror is a virtual image formed?
(a) f > d_o > 0
(b) d_o > r
(c) d_o = f
(d) d_o = \infty

f > d_o > 0

76. The image formed by a convex mirror is:
(a) Real and inverted
(b) Real and upright
(c) Virtual and upright
(d) Virtual and inverted

Virtual and upright

77. The image formed by a plane mirror is:
(a) Real and inverted
(b) Real and upright
(c) Virtual and upright
(d) Virtual and inverted

Virtual and inverted

78. What is the term for the change of direction of light as it moves from one material (called medium) to another?
(a) Absorption
(b) Diffraction
(c) Refraction
(d) Reflection

Refraction

79. What is the term for the ray of light moving away from the boundary between two media?
(a) Incident ray
(b) Refracted ray
(c) Diffracted ray
(d) Reflective ray

Refracted ray

80. What is the term for the angle between the refracted ray and the normal?
(a) Angle of incidence
(b) Critical angle
(c) Angle of refraction
(d) Angle of reflection

Angle of refraction

81. What is the term for a medium with a greater refraction effect (slower speed of light)?
(a) Optically denser medium
(b) Optically lighter medium
(c) Critical medium
(d) Transparent medium

Optically denser medium

82. In which direction is a ray of light bent when entering an optically denser medium?
(a) Towards the normal
(b) Away from the normal
(c) Parallel to the refracting surface
(d) No bending

Towards the normal

83. In which direction is a ray of light bent when entering an optically rare medium?
(a) Towards the normal
(b) Away from the normal
(c) Parallel to the refracting surface
(d) No bending

Away from the normal

84. What condition determines the direction of bending when light enters an optically denser medium?
(a) Angle of reflection
(b) Angle of incidence
(c) Angle of refraction
(d) Angle of deflection

Angle of refraction

85. When light moves from air to glass, what is the relationship between the angle of incidence and the angle of refraction?
(a) Equal angles
(b) Angle of incidence is greater
(c) Angle of refraction is greater
(d) No change in angles

Angle of incidence is greater

86. When light moves from glass to air, what is the relationship between the angle of incidence and the angle of refraction?
(a) Equal angles
(b) Angle of incidence is greater
(c) Angle of refraction is greater
(d) No change in angles

Angle of refraction is greater

87. What is the term for the ratio of the speed of light in vacuum divided by the speed of light in a material?
(a) Optical coefficient
(b) Reflective factor
(c) Refractive index
(d) Luminosity ratio

Refractive index

88. In the formula "n = \frac{c}{v}", what does 'n' represent?
(a) Wavelength of light
(b) Refractive index of the material
(c) Speed of light in vacuum
(d) Frequency of light

Refractive index of the material

89. According to the formula "n = \frac{c}{v}", if the speed of light in a material increases, what happens to the refractive index (n) ?
(a) Increases
(b) Decreases
(c) Remains constant
(d) Unpredictable

Decreases

90. If the refractive index (n) of a material is 1 , what can be inferred about the speed of light in that material compared to vacuum?
(a) Slower
(b) Faster
(c) Equal
(d) Inconsistent

Equal

91. How is the refractive index (n) affected when the speed of light in a material is equal to the speed of light in vacuum?
(a) Increases
(b) Decreases
(c) Remains constant
(d) Becomes undefined

Remains constant

92. What is the speed of light in a vacuum?
(a) 3.00 \times 10^5 \ m/s
(b) 3.00 \times 10^8 \ m/s
(c) 1.86 \times 10^5 \ m/s
(d) 1.21 \times 10^9 \ watts

3.00 \times 10^8 \ m/s

93. In which medium does light generally travel faster?
(a) Vacuum
(b) Gases
(c) Liquids
(d) Solids

Vacuum

94. What is the refractive index of air?
(a) 1.0002
(b) 1.99
(c) 1.33
(d) 1.501

1.0002

95. What is the refractive index of water?
(a) 1.0002
(b) 1.99
(c) 1.33
(d) 1.501

1.33

96. Which one of the following materials will refract light more?
(a) Water
(b) Glass
(c) Air
(d) Diamond

Diamond

97. What is speed of light in water having index of refraction as 1.33?
(a) 2.26 \times 10^8 \ m/s
(b) 2.50 \times 10^8 \ m/s
(c) 1.50 \times 10^8 \ m/s
(d) 2.99 \times 10^8 \ m/s

2.26 × 10^8 \ m/s

98. _______________ stated as ‘the product of the index of refraction of the first medium and the sine of the angle of incidence is equal to the product of the index of refraction of the second medium and the sine of the angle of refraction’.
(a) Coulomb’s Law
(b) Ohm’s Law
(c) Hooke’s Law
(d) Snell’s Law

Snell’s Law

99. What is Snell’s Law mathematically expressed as?
(a) n_1 \times \sin(\theta_1) = n_2 \times sin(\theta_2)
(b) n_1 \times \cos(\theta_1) = n_2 \times cos(\theta_2)
(c) n_1 \times \tan(\theta_1) = n_2 \times tan(\theta_2)
(d) n_1 \times \sec(\theta_1) = n_2 \times sec(\theta_2)

n_1 \times \sin (\theta_1) = n_2 \times sin(θ_2)

100. If the speed of light in kerosene oil is 2.08 \times 10^8 \ m/s , what is the index of refraction?
(a) 1.44
(b) 1.67
(c) 1.92
(d) 2.08

1.44

101. What is the term for when light travels from a region of higher index of refraction to a region of lower index of refraction at an angle greater than the critical angle?
(a) External Reflection
(b) Total External Reflection
(c) Critical Reflection
(d) Total Internal Reflection

Total Internal Reflection

102. At a certain angle of incidence, the refracted light ray lies along the boundary of the two media, the angle is called:
(a) Angle of incidence
(b) Angle of Reflection
(c) Critical angle
(d) Angle of refraction

Critical angle

103. What is the mathematical expression for the sine of the critical angle (sin θc)?
(a) \sin \theta_c = \frac{n_1}{n_2}
(b) \sin \theta_c = \frac{n_2}{n_1}
(c) \sin \theta_c = n_1 \times n_2
(d) All of these

\sin \theta_c = \frac{n_2}{n_1}

104. When is total internal reflection possible?
(a) n_1 < n_2
(b) n_1 = n_2
(c) n_1 > n_2
(d) None of these

n_1 > n_2

105. When is total internal reflection possible?
(a) \theta_i > \theta_c
(b) \theta_i < \theta_c
(c) \theta = \theta_c
(d) None of these

\theta_i > \theta_c

106. What is the mechanism that allows light to be trapped inside a bent glass rod and transmitted along a curved path?
(a) Reflection
(b) Refraction
(c) Total internal reflection
(d) Dispersion

Total internal reflection

107. What materials can be used to make optical fibers?
(a) Metal
(b) Wood
(c) Various glasses and plastics
(d) Rubber

Various glasses and plastics

108. In optical fibers, how is a beam of light transmitted?
(a) Reflection
(b) Absorption
(c) Scattering
(d) Total internal reflection

Total internal reflection

109. What role does the boundary between the core and cladding play in an optical fiber?
(a) It absorbs light
(b) It acts as a reflector
(c) It disperses light
(d) It changes the color of light

It acts as a reflector

110. What is the outermost layer surrounding the cladded fibers, designed to protect against environmental dangers?
(a) Core
(c) Jacket
(d) Reflector

Jacket

111. Why is the jacket of an optical fiber made of plastic and layered materials?
(a) To enhance light transmission
(b) To provide structural support
(c) To protect against moisture
(d) To increase the refractive

To protect against moisture

112. Which part has high refractive index in optical fiber?
(a) Core
(c) Jacket
(d) Boundary

Core

113. What is a prism in optics?
(a) Reflective optical element
(b) Translucent material
(c) Transparent optical element
(d) Opaque structure

Transparent optical element

114. How many flat surfaces does a prism typically have?
(a) One
(b) Two
(c) Three
(d) Four

Three

115. What is the traditional geometrical shape of a prism?
(a) Rectangular prism
(b) Square prism
(c) Triangular prism
(d) Hexagonal prism

Triangular prism

116. What does the refraction of light in a prism depend on?
(a) Prism’s color
(b) Prism’s size
(c) Prism’s weight
(d) Angle between prism surfaces

Angle between prism surfaces

117. Why does light bend when entering a prism?
(a) Due to gravitational force
(b) Due to magnetic attraction
(c) Due to higher optical density in the prism
(d) Random occurrence

Due to higher optical density in the prism

118. How does the angle between prism surfaces affect light refraction?
(a) It has no effect
(b) It determines the prism’s color
(c) It influences the direction of light
(d) It changes the prism’s transparency

It influences the direction of light

119. What happens to light when it moves from air to a prism with a higher refractive index?
(a) Light speed increases
(b) Light reflects off the prism
(c) Light disappears
(d) Light bends towards the normal

Light bends towards the normal

120. Which property of glass causes it to refract light differently than air?
(a) Transparency
(b) Shape
(c) Refractive index
(d) Color

Refractive index

121. What is the primary purpose of a triangular prism in optics?
(a) To reflect light
(b) To disperse light into colors
(c) To block light

To disperse light into colors

122. What happens to light when it leaves the glass and enters the air on the other side of the prism?
(a) It reflects off the air
(b) It continues in a straight line
(c) It is refracted away from the normal
(d) It disappears

It is refracted away from the normal

123. What is the change in the direction of light as it passes through the prism known as?
(a) Reflection
(b) Dispersion
(c) Diffraction
(d) Deviation

Deviation

124. What is the term used to describe the amount of change in the direction of light in a prism?
(a) Refractive index
(b) Prism angle
(c) Dispersion index
(d) Angle of deviation

Angle of deviation

125. How can you determine the angle of deviation for any shape of prism?
(a) By measuring the prism’s weight
(b) By applying Snell’s law at each air-glass interface
(c) By counting the number of prism surfaces
(d) By observing the prism’s color

By applying Snell’s law at each air-glass interface

126. What is obtained when sunlight (white light) falls on a glass prism?
(b) A spectrum of colors
(c) Complete darkness
(d) A single color

A spectrum of colors

127. What causes the separation of colors in a prism when sunlight passes through it?
(a) Prism’s weight
(b) Refractive index of air
(c) Different refractive indices for each color
(d) Prism’s size

Different refractive indices for each color

128. Why does a spectrum of colors (dispersion) occur when white light passes through a prism?
(a) Because the prism absorbs colors
(b) Because white light is a mixture of many colors
(c) Because the prism reflects light
(d) Because the prism changes the color of light

Because white light is a mixture of many colors

129. Which color of light has the greatest refractive index in glass?
(a) Red
(b) Orange
(c) Yellow
(d) Violet

Violet

130. Among the given colors, which one has the lowest refractive index in glass?
(a) Blue
(b) Green
(c) Yellow
(d) Red

Red

131. What is the primary function of a lens?
(a) Emitting light
(b) Refracting light
(c) Absorbing light
(d) Generating heat

Refracting light

132. Which material can be used to make lenses?
(a) Wood
(b) Metal
(c) Glass or plastic
(d) Paper

Glass or plastic

133. What happens when parallel rays pass through a convex lens?
(a) They diverge
(b) They converge
(c) They remain parallel
(d) They scatter randomly

They converge

134. What type of lens is also called converging lens?
(a) Convex lens
(b) Concave lens
(c) Bifocal lens
(d) All of these

Convex lens

135. What type of lens is thinner at the edges than at the center?
(a) Convex lens
(b) Concave lens
(c) Bifocal lens
(d) All of these

Convex lens

136. What type of lens is also called diverging lens?
(a) Convex lens
(b) Concave lens
(c) Bifocal lens
(d) All of these

Concave lens

137. The optical center of a lens is denoted by:
(a) C
(b) F
(c) O
(d) P

O

138. How is the focal length represented in the absence of a real center of curvature for lenses?
(a) R
(b) C
(c) O
(d) 2F

2F

139. In lenses, the principal axis is:
(a) Parallel to the lens surface
(b) Perpendicular to the lens surface
(c) Inclined at 45 degrees
(d) Irrelevant to lens function

Perpendicular to the lens surface

140. What is the result when light passes through a concave lens?
(a) It converges
(b) It diverges
(c) It reflects
(d) It absorbs

It diverges

141. The two faces of a lens are part of a:
(a) Cylinder
(b) Sphere
(c) Cube
(d) Pyramid

Sphere

142. What is the point of convergence for rays entering parallel to the principal axis in a lens?
(a) Optical center
(b) Focal length
(c) Principal focus
(d) Sphere center

Principal focus

143. How many principal focuses are there in a lens when rays enter from different sides?
(a) One
(b) Two
(c) Three
(d) None

Two

144. Where do the rays of light appear to originate after refraction from a lens?
(a) Optical center
(b) Focal point
(c) Principal axis
(d) Vertex

Focal point

145. What is the alternative term for the focal point in a lens?
(a) Optical center
(b) Vertex
(c) Convergence point
(d) Principal focus

Principal focus

146. The distance from the vertical axis to either focal point is known as:
(b) Aperture size
(c) Focal length
(d) Optical axis

Focal length

147. Where the object is typically positioned in a ray diagram for a lens?
(a) Away from the lens
(b) Directly on the principal axis
(c) Touching the lens edges
(d) Above the focal points

Directly on the principal axis

148. The A-ray in ray tracing for lenses is initially:
(a) Perpendicular to the axis
(b) Tangential to the lens surface
(c) Parallel to the axis
(d) Passing through the center of curvature

Parallel to the axis

149. What happens to the A-ray after passing through the convex lens?
(a) It remains parallel to the axis
(b) It converges at the focal point
(c) It diverges away from the axis
(d) It reflects back towards the object

It converges at the focal point

150. What is the direction of the F-ray after passing through the convex lens?
(a) Towards the object
(b) Parallel to the axis
(c) Away from the lens
(d) It converges at the focal point

Parallel to the axis

151. The O-ray passes through which point in the lens?
(a) Optical center
(b) Vertex
(c) Focal point
(d) Edge of the lens

Optical center

152. How is the O-ray affected after passing through the lens?
(a) It diverges
(b) It remains straight
(c) It converges
(d) It reflects off the lens surface

It remains straight

153. The lens formula is accurate when:
(a) The lens thickness is large
(b) The lens is made of glass
(c) The lens thickness is small compared to its diameter
(d) The lens is convex

The lens thickness is small compared to its diameter

154. What is the significance of equation, being referred to as the mirror/lens formula?
(a) Lens and mirror equations differ
(b) They have the same mathematical form
(c) It is specific to convex lenses
(d) It involves multiple variables

They have the same mathematical form

155. What does a positive value of ‘f’ indicate for a lens?
(a) Converging (convex) lens
(b) Diverging (concave) lens
(c) Biconcave lens
(d) Plano-concave lens

Converging (convex) lens

156. What does a negative value of ‘f’ indicate for a lens?
(a) Converging (convex) lens
(b) Diverging (concave) lens
(c) Biconvex lens
(d) Plano-convex lens

Diverging (concave) lens

157. The power of a lens is a measure of:
(a) Its weight
(b) Its size
(c) The degree of convergence or divergence of light rays
(d) Its color

The degree of convergence or divergence of light rays

158. How is the power of a lens defined in Equation?
(a) D = \frac{1}{f}
(b) D = f
(c) D = \frac{1}{(2f)}
(d) D = 2f

D = \frac{1}{f}

159. In terms of the power of a lens, what is the unit used?
(a) Watts
(b) Joules
(c) Diopters
(d) Newtons

Diopters

160. What does the power in watts represent?
(a) Lens thickness
(b) Energy consumption rate
(c) Focal length
(d) Diopters

Energy consumption rate

161. What is the transparent gel-like substance filling the interior of the eye?
(a) Aqueous humor
(b) Cornea
(c) Retina
(d) Vitreous humor

Vitreous humor

162. What is the index of refraction of the humor in the interior of the eye?
(a) 1.336
(b) 1.337
(c) 1.5
(d) 2.0

1.337

163. Which part of the eye adjusts automatically to control the amount of light entering, similar to a camera?
(a) Retina
(b) Iris
(c) Lens
(d) Cornea

Iris

164. Where is the retina located in the eye, playing the role of film or sensor in a camera?
(a) Front surface of the eye
(b) Between cornea and lens
(c) On the curved back surface of the eye
(d) In the vitreous humor

On the curved back surface of the eye

165. What is the role of the nerves in the retina?
(a) Control the iris
(b) Change light energy into electrical signals
(c) Adjust the focus of the lens
(d) Produce aqueous humor

Change light energy into electrical signals

166. What is the composition of the fluid between the cornea and lens in the eye?
(a) Gel-like substance
(b) Aqueous humor
(c) Vitreous humor
(d) Corneal fluid

Aqueous humor

167. What is the refractive index (n) of the aqueous humor in the eye?
(a) 1.336
(b) 1.337
(c) 1.5
(d) 2.0

1.336

168. What type of lens is used in the human eye for vision?
(a) Convex lens
(b) Concave lens
(c) Plano-concave lens
(d) Plano-convex lens

Convex lens

169. The human eye forms the image of an object at its
(a) Iris
(b) Retina
(c) Pupil
(d) Cornea

Retina

170. What primarily contributes to the bending of light rays in the human eye?
(a) Lens curvature
(b) Corneal thickness
(c) Ciliary muscle contraction
(d) Refraction at the lens interface with air

Refraction at the lens interface with air

171. How is the fine adjustment for focusing at different distances achieved in the eye?
(b) Ciliary muscle contraction
(c) Lens rigidity
(d) Retinal reshaping

Ciliary muscle contraction

172. What is the term used for the eye’s adjustment to focus on nearby objects by thickening the lens?
(a) Refraction
(b) Accommodation
(c) Focal length alteration
(d) Corneal reshaping

Accommodation

173. What is the role of the ciliary muscles when focusing on a distant object?
(a) Contraction
(b) Relaxation
(c) Rigidity
(d) Expansion

Relaxation

174. What is the term for the closest distance at which the eye can focus clearly?
(a) Distant point
(b) Near point
(c) Focal point
(d) Infinity point

Near point

175. What is the typical near point for young adults?
(a) 10 cm
(b) 25 cm
(c) 50 cm
(d) 100 cm

25 cm

176. How does the near point change as people grow older?
(a) Decreases
(b) Remains constant
(c) Increases
(d) Fluctuates

Increases

177. What is another term for short-sightedness?
(a) Hyperopia
(b) Presbyopia
(c) Myopia
(d) Astigmatism

Myopia

178. What characterizes short-sightedness in terms of focusing ability?
(a) Clear vision for distant objects
(b) Clear vision for nearby objects
(c) Blurred vision for all distances
(d) Inability to focus on any objects

Clear vision for nearby objects

179. What causes short-sightedness in most cases?
(a) Short eyeball
(b) Long eyeball
(c) Flat cornea
(d) Irregular lens shape

Long eyeball

180. How can short-sightedness be corrected?
(a) Using a converging lens
(b) Using a diverging lens
(d) Strengthening the celery muscles

Using a diverging lens

181. In short-sightedness, where are images of distant objects focused?
(a) On the retina
(b) Behind the retina
(c) In the center of the eyeball
(d) In front of the retina

In front of the retina

182. What is another term for long-sightedness?
(a) Hyperopia
(b) Presbyopia
(c) Myopia
(d) Astigmatism

Hyperopia

183. What characterizes long-sightedness in terms of focusing ability?
(a) Clear vision for distant objects
(b) Clear vision for nearby objects
(c) Blurred vision for all distances
(d) Inability to focus on any objects

Clear vision for distant objects

184. What causes long-sightedness in most cases?
(a) Long eyeball
(b) Short eyeball
(c) Flat cornea
(d) Irregular lens shape

Short eyeball

185. How can long-sightedness be corrected?
(b) Using a diverging lens
(c) Using a converging lens
(d) Strengthening the ciliary muscles

Using a converging lens

186. In long-sightedness, where are images of nearby objects focused?
(a) On the retina
(b) Behind the retina
(c) In the center of the eyeball
(d) In front of the retina

Behind the retina

187. What is the capacity of an instrument to visually separate closely spaced objects called?
(a) Magnification power
(b) Resolving power
(c) Focusing ability
(d) Clarity factor

Resolving power

188. In resolving power, what is the specific aspect related to the sharpness of vision?
(a) Magnification
(b) Resolution
(c) Brightness
(d) Contrast

Resolution

189. The angular size of the final image produced by the instrument divided by a reference angular size is called:
(a) Angular magnification
(b) Focal ratio
(c) Refractive index
(d) Optical resolution

Angular magnification

190. What is the purpose of placing the object just inside the focal length of a converging lens in a simple microscope?
(a) To reduce magnification
(b) To create a real image
(c) To produce a smaller image
(d) To obtain a magnified, upright, virtual image

To obtain a magnified, upright, virtual image

191. For small angles, what is the relationship between tan θ and θ?
(a) \tan \theta = \theta
(b) \tan \theta = 0
(c) \tan \theta = 1
(d) \theta = 0

\tan \theta = \theta

192. What is the formula for magnification (m_\theta) when the image is at the near point for a magnifying glass?
(a) m_\theta = \frac{N}{f} + 1
(b) m\theta = \frac{f}{N} + 1
(c) m\theta = \frac{f}{N}
(d) m\theta = \frac{N}{f}

m_\theta = \frac{N}{f} + 1

193. What is the formula for magnification (m_\theta) when the image is at infinity for a magnifying glass?
(a) m_\theta = \frac{N}{f} + 1
(b) m\theta = \frac{f}{N} + 1
(c) m\theta = \frac{f}{N}
(d) m\theta = \frac{N}{f}

m\theta = \frac{N}{f}

194. An optical instrument consisting of an eyepiece and an objective lens to achieve high magnification of small object is called:
(a) Binoculars
(b) Magnifying Glass
(c) Compound Microscope
(d) Telescope

Compound Microscope

195. What is the purpose of adding an additional converging lens in a compound microscope?
(a) To decrease magnification
(b) To increase angular magnification
(c) To enhance color accuracy
(d) To reduce lens thickness

To increase angular magnification

196. What is the additional lens, typically called in a compound microscope?
(a) Eyepiece lens
(b) Objective lens
(c) Converging lens
(d) Magnifying lens

Objective lens

197. What does the eyepiece do in a compound microscope regarding the image formed by the objective?
(a) Enlarges the image size
(b) Reduces the image size
(c) Inverts the image
(d) Disperses the image

Enlarges the image size

198. How is the overall magnification (M) calculated in a compound microscope?
(a) M = M_o \div m_e
(b) M = M_o \times m_e
(c) M = M_o + m_e
(d) M = M_o - m_e

M = M_o \times m_e

199. What is the term for an instrument designed to magnify distant objects, such as stars and planets?
(a) Refracting Telescope
(b) Microscope
(c) Magnifying Glass
(d) Spectroscope

Refracting Telescope

200. How the total angular magnification (m_\theta) of a refracting telescope is typically calculated?
(a) m_\theta = \frac{f_o}{f_e}
(b) m_\theta = \frac{-f_o}{f_e}
(c) m_\theta = f_o \times f_e
(d) m_\theta = -f_o \times f_e